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Local Urban Observatory for Nakuru Municipality, Kenya
NCCR North-South,
The Nakuru Local Urban Observatory Project aims at providing a framework for sustainable urban planning and management practices through building technical skills and improving participation of the various local stakeholders. To achieve this goal, a Local Urban Observatory (LUO) was created to stimulate the development of municipal spatial and environmental planning and management practices, informed by accurate, timely and accessible information. Available for download: click here
Lessons From Two Long-term Hydrological Studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka
Mungai, D. N.
The rate and characteristics of land use change in tropical watersheds due to changing demographic, economic and policy factors have important consequences for catchment health and environmental services. Few tropical watershed studies have lasted long enough to facilitate a credible analysis of the long-term effects of land use change on the environmental services provided by watersheds. This paper examines the driving forces and patterns of historical land use change in two long-term watershed studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka and their hydrological impacts. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2004, 104, pp. 135–143 Available online from: Science Direct
Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands
Haller, Tobias
Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty years ago emphasize the notion that Africa is still “mal parti”. Many show discontent for what has been achieved in this time, despite that “Africa works” as is suggested by Chabal and Daloz in their widely discussed book (1999). I will focus on the issue of sustainable development in Africa. This will be illustrated by the presentation of a common property resource management research project (on fisheries, pastures, wildlife, water for irrigation, and forests). The question of why the overuse of natural resources and conflicts over resources are occurring in modern day Africa is addressed here. This research project is called “Common Property Institutions and Power Relations: Resource Management, Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands”. It focuses on six African floodplain wetlands in semi-arid zones (Internal Niger Delta in Mali, Hadejia-Jama'ara in Northern Nigeria, Logone Floodplain in Northern Cameroon, Pangani Floodplain in Tanzania, Okavango Delta in Botswana and Kafue Flats in Zambia (Haller 2001)) [...]. The African Anthropologist 2002, Vol 9, No.1, pp. 25-35 Available from: African Journals Online
Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania
Obrist, Brigit
«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt? Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76 Download
Struggling for Health in the City
Obrist, Brigit
Bern, Peter Lang Publishing Group
Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Knobel, Darryn L.
Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, Vol. 83, Number 5, pp. 321-400 Download from: The World Health Organisation
Sensing Soil Properties in the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin by means of Reflectance Spectroscopy and GIS
Hett, Conny
Master's Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This thesis is a proof of method study of the Soil Sensing Approach, a new approach for rapid assessment of soil properties using near-infrared spectroscopy. The study was carried out in a small tests area of ten by ten km in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro Basin, Kenya. The topical aim was to assess soil chemical properties in relation to land cover/land use. Through application of chemometric models soil carbon and nitrogen were predicted based on their near-infrared reflectance curves. CART classification and regression trees were used for modelling the two properties. It was shown that classification trees did not perform nearly as good on the samples as the regression trees. Finally relationships between land cover/land use and soil carbon and nitrogen were assessed and soil carbon and nitrogen showed very similar results. The good results of the Soil Sensing Approach make its use possible for mapping soil carbon and nitrogen properties using satellite imagery. Download
Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa
Ayele, Wuhib Y.
"Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous le-sions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. Bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. All species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. In Africa, bovine TB primarily affects cattle; however, infection in other farm and domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats, is not uncommon. Wild ruminants and carnivores are also affected and are the natural reservoirs of the infectious agent in the wild. Man is also susceptible to the disease, the highest risk groups being individuals with concomitant HIV/AIDS infection. In Africa, human TB is widely known to be caused by M. tuberculosis; however, an unknown proportion of cases are due to M. bovis. This infection in humans is underreported as a result of the diagnostic limitations of many laboratories in distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. None of the national reports submitted to the OIE and WHO by African member states mention the importance of M. bovis in human TB cases. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and poorly heat-treated meat and close contact with infected animals represent the main sources of infection for humans. This review attempts to examine the impact of bovine TB on the health of animals and humans." The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2004, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 924-937(14) Freely available from: Ingentaconnect
Mitigating Conflicts Over Scarce Water Resources in the Highland-lowland System of Mount Kenya
Wiesmann, Urs
The Mount Kenya region offers a great deal of beautiful scenery and attracts tourists from all over the world. What these tourists may not see, however, is the crucial function of Mount Kenya as a water tower for its footzones and adjoining lowland areas. This function is becoming ever more crucial, as populations in these areas are growing at a rapid pace and new land use systems require far more water. These developments have set the stage for increasing conflicts over water resources; to make things worse, water is becoming ever scarcer, especially in the dry areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the Samburu Plains to the north and west of the mountain. This article summarizes the complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics prevailing in the highland-Blowland system of Mount Kenya—the Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin—and presents a multilevel strategy for mitigating the emerging conflicts over water resources. Mountain Research and Development 2000, 20(1), pp. 10-15. Order via your university library from: BioOne
Water-Related Environmental Services and Options for their Sustainable Use in the Pangani Basin, East Africa
Notter, Benedikt
The study develops and applies a methodology for quantifying ecosystem services in the water sector in the East African Pangani Basin for the year 2000 and for scenarios for 2025. Special attention is given to the criteria of valuation by stakeholders and accessibility of water resources, which necessitates the use of a high-resolution hydrological process model. Services quantified include domestic water, water for irrigated or rainfed agriculture, hydropower production, and environmental flows. PhD Thesis at Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern Download
Multi-dimensional approaches to more sustainable natural resources management in highly dynamic contexts in East Africa
Kiteme, Boniface
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Research for Sustainable Development: Foundations, Experiences, and Perspectives
Wiesmann, Urs
Achieving sustainable development requires knowledge-based and value-conscious social, political, and economic decisions and actions at multiple levels. Research aiming to support sustainable development must co-produce knowledge at the interfaces between disciplines, between science and society, between knowledge cultures in the global North, South, and East, and between global visions and local realities, while remaining rooted in solid disciplinary foundations. Research for Sustainable Development presents 29 articles in which interdisciplinary teams reflect on the foundations of sustainability-oriented research, on concepts, tools, and approaches to overcome the challenges of such research, and on specific issues of sustainable development. For the print version, please send your order to: (price: CHF 45.00 / EUR 30.00, excluding postage) Download Book (8 MB) Download Flyer (100 KB)
Monitoring and modelling for the sustainable management of water resources in tropical mountain basins.
MacMillan, Lindsay
This paper presents a rare example of a relatively intensive, variable scale, monitoring network in tropical highland Africa. Examples of results from this monitoring are given, which reveal the importance of vegetation cover and landuse in the generation of storm flow, groundwater recharge and decline in river flows. The calibration of a hydrological model developmed for this region, together with some early results from the simulation of landuse change scenarios, are also presented. In: Bugmann H et al. Global Change and Mountain Regions: An Overview of Current Knowledge. Springer, pp. 605-616.
Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.
Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Afrika: globale Agenda und lokales Handeln
Hurni, Hans
In: Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Thomas Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich, pp. 123-136 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Development of conservation agriculture: Application and spread
Schäfer, Natalie
Master Thesis at University of Bern Download
Assessment of Development Disparities in the Pangani basin
Lörcher, Sylvia
Master's thesis at University of Bern Download
People’s Choice First
Lüthi, Christoph
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 22 Bern, NCCR North-South
Strengthening policies and institutions to support adaptation to climate variabiliy and change in the drylands of East Africa
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
We analysed how policies in Tanzania and Kenya address the strategies of agro-pastoralists for coping with and adapting to climate variability and climate change, based on data from semi-structured household surveys, group discussions, policy documents and other material. Many policies indirectly address climate variability and change by focusing on drought, suggesting that some form of mainstreaming already exists. We show that by integrating the perspective of agro-pastoralists, i.e. the majority of the rural poor, policies and pro-poor adaptation strategies can be strengthened. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 107-130. Download
Indigenous knowledge related to climate variability and change: insights from droughts in semi-arid areas of former Makueni District, Kenya.
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
This article describes the indigenous knowledge (IK) that agro pastoralists in larger Makueni District, Kenya hold and how they use it to monitor, mitigate and adapt to drought. It examines ways of integrating IK into formal monitoring, how to enhance its value and acceptability. Data was collected through target interviews, group discussions and questionnaires covering 127 households in eight villages. Daily rainfall data from 1961–2003 were analysed. Results show that agro-pastoralists hold IK on indicators of rainfall variability; they believe in IK efficacy and they rely on them. Because agro-pastoralists consult additional sources, the authors interpret that IK forms a basic knowledge frame within which agro-pastoralists position and interpret meteorological forecasts. [...] Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9713-0 Download
Exploring Pathways for Sustainable Development in the ASALs in Transition in Kenya
Kiteme, Boniface
Kiteme BP, Wabwire PN. 2003. Exploring Pathways for Sustainable Development in the ASALs in Transition in Kenya. Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Syndromes Workshop, 15th May 2003, Nairobi.
Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania
Lyamchai, C.
Lyamchai C, Kiteme BP, Mathuva JM, Kingamkono M. (in prep.): Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania: The Application of SDA/PRA Methodologies. An ESAPP funded Project 2001-2002.
Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya
Kiteme, Boniface
This paper discusses the effects of global change in African mountains, with the example of Mount Kenya. The geographical focus is the northwestern, semi-arid foot zone of the mountain (Laikipia District). Over the past 50 years, this area has experienced rapid and profound transformation, the respective processes of which are all linked to global change. The main driving forces behind these processes have been political and economic in nature. To these an environmental change factor has been added in recent years – climate change. Kiteme BP, Liniger HP, Notter B, Wiesmann U, Kohler T. 2008. Dimensions of global change in African mountains: The example of Mount Kenya. IDHP International Human Dimensions Programme. IHDP UPDATE 2:18-23. Download
Droughts and famines: The underlying factors and the causal links among agro-pastoral households in semi-arid Makueni district, Kenya
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
"Famines are often linked to drought in semi-arid areas of Sub-Saharan Africa where not only pastoralists, but also increasingly agro-pastoralists are affected. This study addresses the interplay between drought and famine in the rural semi-arid areas of Makueni district, Kenya, by examining whether, and how crop production conditions and agro-pastoral strategies predispose smallholder households to drought-triggered food insecurity. If this hypothesis holds, then approaches to deal with drought and famine have to target factors causing household food insecurity during non-drought periods. Data from a longitudinal survey of 127 households, interviews, workshops, and daily rainfall records (1961–2003) were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. This integrated approach confirms the above hypothesis and reveals that factors other than rainfall, like asset and labour constraints, inadequate policy enforcement, as well as the poverty-driven inability to adopt risk-averse production systems play a key role. When linking these factors to the high rainfall variability, farmer-relevant definitions and forecasts of drought have to be applied." Global Environmental Change 2008, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 220-233. Available from: Global Environmental Change
Déforestation et droit coutumier à Madagascar
Muttenzer, Frank
PhD Thesis, University of Geneva, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Medicalization and morality in a weak state
Obrist, Brigit
"Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life." Anthropology & Medicine 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 43-57 Available for purchase from: Informaworld
Espaces forestiers, système de production agraire et dégradation des forêts à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"La dégradation de l'espace résiduel forestier constitue un des problèmes majeurs du développement agricole à Madagascar. Malgré l'importance de l'aide internationale dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du PNAE les forêts se sont dégradées à un rythme de 1,7% par an. Aux lacunes techniques d'encadrement paysan et l'insuffisance des connaissances sur la forêt Malgache (croissance lente, relief accidenté) ont été proposées des solutions institutionnelles qui prônent la responsabilisation des acteurs locaux dans la gestion forestière. Cet article vise à évaluer la pertinence des outils institutionnels et des concepts utilisés pour la protection des forêts à Madagascar à partir d'analyse institutionnelle et spatiale par comparaison des normes juridiques et techniques avec les pratiques réelles (analyse des filières et diagnostic technique) [...]". Terre Malgache 2005, No. 24, pp. 92-114 Download
Origines et impacts des politiques de gestion des ressources naturelles à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"An investigation of the impact of policies of the natural resources on Madagascar uncovered a number of deficiencies. A widely recommended participative approach is reaching its limits. The impartiality of the actors involved is at stake. Illicit product networks play an important role in the redistribution of commercial income. Strategies that weaken the role of the state should be reversed." Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 2004, Vol. 155, No. 11, pp. 467-475 Download
The Impact of Demand Factors, Quality of Care and Access to Facilities on Contraceptive Use in Tanzania
Arends-Kuenning, Mary
The low contraceptive prevalence rate and the existence of unmet demand for family planning services present a challenge for parties involved in family planning research in Tanzania. The observed situation has been explained by the demand-side variables such as socioeconomic characteristics and cultural values that maintain the demand for large families. A small, but growing body of research is examining the effect of supply-side factors such as quality of care of family planning services on the demand for contraceptives. This paper analyses the demand and supply factors determining contraceptive use in Tanzania using the Tanzania Service Availability Survey (1996) and the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (1996) data sets. The results show that access to family planning services and quality of care of services are important determinants of contraceptive use in Tanzania even after controlling for demand-side factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 2007, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 1-26 Available from: Cambridge University Press
Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania
Boller, Christoph
"Objective To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria. Methods Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison. Findings The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones. Conclusion Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 2, pp. 116-122 Available from: The World Health Organization
Urban health in daily practice
Obrist, Brigit
"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290 Available from: informaworld
Preventing and Resolving Water Use Conflicts in the Mount Kenya Highland–Lowland System through Water Users' Associations
Kiteme, Boniface
"In recent decades, the Mount Kenya highland–lowland system, which includes the Ewaso Ngiro North Basin, has experienced complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics. These are reflected in changing land use systems and practices as well as in a rapidly growing human population, especially in the footzones and adjacent lowlands. These changes have exerted unremitting pressure on water resources, especially because the demand for water by different user groups has continued to grow, against the backdrop of expensive alternative sources (rainwater and groundwater harvesting) and increasingly dwindling river water resources. As each of the user groups moves to make substantial claims to available river water, competition for the resource becomes even sharper, thus setting the stage for conflicts related to scarcity that intensify during the dry season, at times resulting in fatal physical conflicts among different user groups in the basin, especially between upstream and downstream users. Different approaches have been used to address these scarcity-related conflicts. The present article discusses Water Users' Associations as one of the most effective initiatives launched to address the problem of water use conflicts in the basin in the recent past." Mountain Research and Development 2002, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp. 332-337 Available from: BioOne
Understanding the Complex Process of Social Marginalization: Analysis of Causes and Pathways towards Sustainable Development in Semi Arid Areas in Transition
Kiteme, Boniface
Kiteme BP, Makali SK. 2004. Understanding the Complex Process of Social Marginalization: Analysis of Causes and Pathways towards Sustainable Development in Semi Arid Areas in Transition. Proceedings of JACS East Africa Syndromes Workshop, 28th October 2003, Egerton University, Njoro.
A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation and, Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania
Madoffe, Seif
Madoffe S, Kiteme BP, Wiesmann U, Mvena ZK. 2004. A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation, and Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the African Mountain Association.
River Water Shortage in a Highland–Lowland System
Aeschbacher, Jos
The highland–lowland system of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin, with Mount Kenya functioning as a crucial water tower, has reached and repeatedly exceeded the limits of water availability in the past decade. In contrast to the heavily decreasing low flow discharge, the mean discharge does not show any decreasing tendency. This is due to higher flood flows, which may be induced by accelerated runoff generation due to land use change. The present study seeks to support Water Users' Associations (WUAs, ie self-help initiatives aiming to mitigate conflicts over the allocation of water) by providing them with up-to-date information about demand, supply and use of river water, as well as tools and methods for improving water management. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 155-162 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Gender Based Analysis of Vulnerability to Drought among Agro-Pastoral Households in Semi-Arid Makueni District, Kenya
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
This study analyses how gender relations shape vulnerability to drought in the semi-arid areas of Makueni District, Kenya. The study area is a marginal environment of low argicultural potential and poverty is widespread. The interplay and socio-economic pressures on agro-pastoral households, and the compulsion to conform or to be perceived as conforming to the prevailing gendered traditional rules and norms, influences the capabilities of men and women to secure their livelihoods in non-drought periods. In times of drought, gender relations also shape the coping strategies of women and men in various ways, and the impacts of drought on household welfare challenge the traditional roles of men. In:Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 119-146.
Africa’s development and its challenges in the health sector: medical, social and cultural dimensions
Cissé, Guéladio
In: Thomas Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich. Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
La contribution des biens naturels du Patrimoine Mondial au développement régional durable: Deux études de cas dans le Nord et le Sud
Wiesmann, Urs
Les sites naturels du Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn et du Mont Kenya sont tous deux inscrits au Patrimoine Mondial de l'Unesco. Dans le cas de Grindelwald, le paysage culturel est plus menacé que le paysage naturel protégé du patrimoine mondial, alors que dans le cas du système des hautes et basses terres du Mont Kenya, l'important potentiel en ressources subit une forte pression anthropique. Dans les pays du Nord, où l'apport à une conscience régionale identitaire de la population peut revêtir une importance considérable, la contribution des biens naturels du patrimoine mondial au développement régional durable est probablement plus élevée en termes socioculturels. Dans les pays du Sud, le statut de patrimoine mondial peut assurer la protection des paysages naturels d'un point de vue écologique, mais les pertes potentielles encourues par la population en termes de production primaire ne sont compensées que de façon très limitée. Revue de géographie alpine 92(3):73-83.
Conservation for whose benefit? Challenges and opportunities for management of Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania.
Mbeyale, Gimbage Ernest
The Mkomazi Game Reserve (MGR) in north-eastern Tanzania is a protected area where different social groups are involved in contest for natural resources. Using MGR as a case study, we examine and discuss how the fortress approach to conservation has led to management problems. We present an overview of conflicts between the MGR authorities and communities, analyse strategies used to deal with the situation and discuss the different ideologies involved. On one hand this is a successful story of fortress conservation. There is proof of increasing bird numbers and improvement in vegetation cover. However, this is at the expense of livelihood security of the local population. We recommend alternative conservation pathways that adopt new participatory conservation approaches instead of the fortress approach currently implemented in MGR. In: Galvin M, Haller T, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 221-251. Download
Environmental Peacebuilding: Managing Natural Resource Conflicts in a Changing World
Péclard, Didier
With the current attention given to climate change and global warming, the issue of “environmental security” is back high on the agenda of the international community. Environmental degradation is increasingly considered as a potential cause for the (re-)emergence of violent conflicts due to shrinking natural resources such as drinkable water and land. However, research on the issue has shown that there is very little empirical evidence of a direct causal link between environmental degradation and violent conflict. In order to set effective priorities for environmental peacebuilding, it is important to understand - particularly in situations of environmental stress - how natural resource conflicts are embedded in social and political dynamics, how they are managed by local institutions, and how these institutional arrangements can be supported through outside intervention. Based on a research project conducted by swisspeace within the framework of the NCCR North-South, the swisspeace annual conference 2007 explored those complex linkages and formulated entry points for improving intervention strategies by external actors. Download pdf
Managing water resources in dynamic settings: A multi-level, multi-stakeholder perspective.
Ngana, James
The aim of the present article is to contribute to the debate on the role of research in sustainable management of water and related resources, based on experiences in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro and Pangani river basins in East Africa. Both basins are characterised by humid, resource-rich highlands and extensive semi-arid lowlands, by growing demand for water and related resources, and by numerous conflicting stakeholder interests. Issues of scale and level, on the one hand, and the normative dimension of sustainability, on the other hand, are identified as key challenges for research that seeks to produce relevant and applicable results for informed decision-making. A multi-level and multi-stakeholder perspective, defined on the basis of three minimal principles, is proposed here as an approach to research for informed decision-making. Key lessons learnt from applying these principles in the two river basins are presented and iscussed in the light of current debate. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 91-106. Download
Monitoring The Health of Selected Eastern Arc Forests in Tanzania
Madoffe, Seif
The eastern arc mountains (EAMs) are a chain of isolated mountains (534,000 ha) in Kenya and Tanzania surrounded by arid woodlands and influenced by the Indian Ocean. Much of the original forests have been converted into agricultural crops. These mountains are recognized as a globally important ‘hot spot’ for forest biodiversity and are major national, regional and local sources of hydropower, water and wide array of forest-based benefits and agricultural production. In February 2000 we began a 3-year evaluation of forest health, land-use change and information sharing in the EAMs. This paper summarizes the baseline data from eighteen permanent sample plots in the east Usambara’s and nine in Ulugurus. The eastern arc web site was established, continues to expand and contains some detailed information on the project. Information will assist land managers, planners, policy makers, interested communities and individuals in decision-making. African Journal of Ecology 44: 171-177. Download
Potentials, limitations and risks of geo-information technology for sustainable development approaches in Kenya
Ehrensperger, Albrecht
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Workshop
Kiteme, Boniface
Kiteme BP. 2003. Proceedings of the JACS East Africa Workshop held in Nanyuki, Kenya from 16-21 February 2003.
Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
This study describes how simple participatory mapping, GIS and remote sensing applications can enable successful urban malaria control. Dongus S. 2009. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel. Download
Monitoring and Modeling Crop Growth, Water Use and Production Under Dry-Land Environment North-West of Mount Kenya
Gitonga, Jeremiah Njeru Lewis
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland "This study was initiated with the aim of using long term monitoring data collected at two representative semi arid stations to examine the impact of biophysical environment (climate and soil) and cultivation method (with and without water conservation) on crop performance (growth and production). Using the knowledge gained from this analysis, the study evaluated and adapted the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) model to develop a simulation tool for the production system practiced by the smallscale farmers in the study area. The adapted APSIM model was used to examine the impact of water conservation on maize growth and production." Download
Assessing and Managing Scarce Tropical Mountain Water Resources
Liniger, Hanspeter
The present article documents increasing water abstraction and the difficulties in establishing limits for low flows such as the Q80 value (flow available on 80% of the days per year). The article also presents the role of Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in mitigating water conflicts related to over-abstraction. Evaluation of the activities of 13 WUAs showed that they solved 45 of 52 conflicts. WUAs are also involved in activities such as environmental education, awareness creation, improved irrigation practices, afforestation, and regulating water. The recent restructuring of the government ministry resulted in a formalized role for WUAs. Long-term data on availability, abstraction, and use of water are needed to mitigate water conflicts within and between WUAs, negotiate water allocation, and establish allocation thresholds. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 163–173 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt
Wiesmann, Urs
Bern, Haupt Verlag
Migration and Fertility Relationship
Omondi, Charles Ochola
"Migration patterns in Kenya in general differentially affect fertility levels, patterns and behaviour. For economically dynamic areas, out-migration and the associated spousal separation and differential sex ratios seem to be associated with falling fertility, though migration is not the only or even the principal factor involved. In lagging and/or peripheral areas, by contrast, the demographic effect of migration seems to promote high fertility by undermining some critical factors of fertility determinants and behaviour. Examples from Africa in general and Kenya in particular are invoked to examine and explain this important association between migration and fertility. Furthermore, the paper incorporates the geography of economic and social development to help understand the relationship between migration and fertility." African Population Studies 2003, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 97-113 Available from: Bioline
Common Pool Resource Management
Meroka, Patrick
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Drought vulnerability and risk in agro-pastoral areas
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD 2008)
NCCR North-South,
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 21
Sustainable River Basin Management in Kenya: Balancing Needs and Requirements.
Kiteme, Boniface
This chapter presents an example of transdisciplinarity based on 25 years of continuous research in the upper Ewaso Ng’iro north basin on the north-western slopes of Mount Kenya. It shows how the research facility evolved from a district and project planning support institution, based on needs, to a regionally oriented and integrated facility addressing the requirements of sustainability. Projecting on the basis of long-term implications of changes in ecological processes and socio-economic and institutional dynamics on water availability, research activities were embedded in a multilevel, multistakeholder transfer strategy to ensure integration of scientific and local knowledge systems and long-term ownership of preferred interventions. In conclusion, the chapter lists seven recommendations on salient issues of transdisciplinary research. In: Hirsch Hadorn et al, editors. Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research. Springer Verlag, pp 63-78. Available from: ScienceDirect
Commentary - Save Darfur: A Movement and its Discontents
Lanz, David
African Affairs 108 (433): 1-9. Order from oxfordjournal.org
Kleinbäuerliche Besiedlung und die Ausprägung von Haushaltsstrategien am Mount Kenya
Kohler, Thomas
"Kleinbäuerliche Besiedlung und die Ausprägung von Haushaltsstrategien am Mount Kenya" in: Jeanneret F, Wastl-Walter D, Wiesmann U, Schwyn M. editors. 2003. Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt. Ressourcen, Akteure, Perspektiven. Bern: Haupt Verlag, pp. 185-196 Order from: Haupt Verlag
Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
A survey of agricultural areas combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopholes larvae. Dongus S et al. 2009. Urban agriculture and Anopholes habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health 3(2):189-210. Download
Sexual and Reproductive Resilience of Adolescents in Ghana and Tanzania
Pfeiffer, Constanze
Flyer of research project on "Sexual and reproductive resilience". Download
Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships
Hurni, Hans
Humankind today is challenged by numerous threats brought about by the speed and scope of global change dynamics. A concerted and informed approach to solutions is needed to face the severity and magnitude of current development problems. Generating shared knowledge is a key to addressing global challenges. This requires developing the ability to cross multiple borders wherever radically different understandings of issues such as health and environmental sanitation, governance and conflict, livelihood options and globalisation, and natural resources and development exist. Global Change and Sustainable Development presents 36 peer-reviewed articles written by interdisciplinary teams of authors who reflected on results of development-oriented research conducted from 2001 to 2008. Scientific activities were – and continue to be – carried out in partnerships involving people and institutions in the global North, South and East, guided by principles of sustainability. The articles seek to inform solutions for mitigating, or adapting to, the negative impacts of global dynamics in the social, political, ecological, institutional and economic spheres. For the print version, please send your order to: nccr-north-south@cde.unibe.ch (price: CHF 45.00 / EUR 30.00, excluding postage) Download Book (30 MB) Download Flyer (94 KB)