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The Implications of Changes in Population, Land Use, and Land Management for Surface Runoff in the Upper Nile Basin Area of Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
Much concern has been raised about population increase in the highlands of Ethiopia and its potential to decrease runoff from the upper Nile Basin to the lowland countries of Sudan and Egypt. The present article examines long-term data on population, land use, land management, rainfall, and surface runoff rates from small test plots (30 m2) and micro-catchments (73–673 ha) in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Analysis and interpretation of data support the hypothesis that surface runoff and sediment yield from the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands into the upper Nile Basin have most probably increased in the long term due to intensified land use and land degradation induced by population increase, when seen in a historical perspective. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 147–154 Order via your university library from: BioOne
“Trickling down or spilling over?”
Mason, Simon
Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, 28 March to 2 April 2003 This paper focuses on the linkages between international and subnational water conflicts in the Eastern Nile and Syr Daria Basins. It follows the notion of “conflict system”, to conceptualize dynamic linkages between different “water conflict arenas”. The aim of our paper is to categorize possible linkages, describe examples and explore implications for water conflict mitigation, with the goal of a better problem-solving potential. Download
Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin
Amer, Salah El-Din
The following article provides an overview of issues related to international cooperation and water use in the Eastern Nile Basin, thereby introducing the following three papers written from an Ethiopian, Sudanese and Egyptian perspective respectively. Basic environmental and socio-economic data is given. The various national interests and international initiatives in the Nile Basin are introduced. Key areas of consensus between the authors, as well as open questions that still need to be worked on, are elaborated. The article also describes the unique process of how the six authors from three countries worked on this joint publication in the Nile Dialogue Workshop of 2002. Key conclusions are that sustained, non-polemical communication can lead to cooperation, and that cooperation is the cornerstone to sustainable water development. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 3-14. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
From Conflict to Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland This thesis addresses the use and management of the Nile waters from a legal/institutional, security, environmental and economic point of view. On the national level the limited institutional and economic capacity to make use of Ethiopia's waters was highlighted as a key factor, slowing development and minimizing Ethiopia's clout to influence international relations to her advantage. On the international level the downstream's (Egypt and Sudan) holding on to the status quo of historical agreements and the principle of "acquired rights" was identified as a major factor blocking cooperative development. The Nile Basin Initiative, since 1999, gives hope for a more cooperative future. The success of the NBI, however, will only be assured if a legal/institutional framework can be agreed on. The PhD ends with various options to increase cooperation, also on non-water issues. Download
Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin
Arsano, Yacob
Ethiopia is the main source of the Nile River, and the country urgently needs water for irrigation and hydro-electric power development. To-date, however, Ethiopia is the country in the Eastern Nile basin that uses the least amount of water from the Nile run-off. There is no basin-wide agreement on the utilization and management of the water resources of the Nile Basin. Unilateral planning and implementation approaches have hindered the possibilities of cooperation and coordinated development. On the national level, economic and institutional capacities are also limited. Past initiatives as well as the current Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are outlined regarding how far these dilemmas are dealt with. The paper ends with suggestions on how to deal with open questions and lessons learned from the ongoing NBI process. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 15-27. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Ethiopian political culture strikes back
Hagmann, Tobias
African Affairs 2006, Volume 105, Number 421, pp. 605-612 Available for purchase from: Oxford Journals
From state collapse to duty-free shop: Somalia’s path to modernity
Hagmann, Tobias
African Affairs 2005, Vol. 104, No. 416, pp. 525-535 Available from: Oxford Journals
Beyond clannishness and colonialism: understanding political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region, 1991–2004
Hagmann, Tobias
This article proposes an alternative interpretation of political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Regional State since the rise to power of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in 1991. Some observers have perceived contemporary politics in the former Ogaden as an example of ‘internal colonisation’ by highland Ethiopians. Others attribute political instability to the ‘nomadic culture’ inherent in the Somali clan structure and the ineptness of its political leaders. This study argues that neither of these two politicised narratives grasps the contradictory interactions between the federal Ethiopian government and its Somali periphery, nor the recursive relations between state and society. With reference to the literature on neo-patrimonialism, I elucidate political disorder in the Somali Region by empirically describing hybrid political domination, institutional instability, and patronage relations, showing how neo-patrimonial rule translates into contested statehood in the region and political devices ranging from military coercion to subtle co-optation. Rather than unilateral domination, a complex web of power and manipulation between parts of the federal and regional authorities animates political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Region. The Journal of Modern African Studies 2005, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 509-536 Available from: Cambridge University Press
Sudan and the Nile Basin
Hamad, Osman El-Tom
The following article gives an overview of Sudanese water development facts and potentials and their regional impact on the other countries sharing the Nile River and beyond. These are set in relation to the unique environmental, socio-economic and political context of Sudan. While the availability of land for irrigation is great, water is limited due to Sudans situation upstream of Egypt and downstream of Ethiopia and the Equatorial Lakes. This geographical position makes Sudan take on a mediative approach to international relations in the Nile Basin. Recent steps to cooperation in the Nile Basin Initiative are presented; they highlight the enormous opportunities that exist in the cooperative development of the Nile. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 28-41 Available from: SpringerLink
Bringing the Sultan Back In
Hagmann, Tobias
In: Buur L, Kyed H M, editors. State Recognition and Democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. A New Dawn for Traditional Authorities? New York: Palgrave, pp. 31-51. Order from: Palgrave Macmillan
Are we Scorpions? The Role of Upstream-Downstream Dialogue in fostering Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
Water consumed upstream does not flow downstream. Consequently, upstream–downstream relations along a shared river may entail competitive use or even conflict. What is the role of communication in preventing or transforming such behavior? The present article addresses this question based on lessons learned in 3 Dialogue Workshops carried out between 2002 and 2004 in the Eastern Nile Basin, with participants from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. It indicates that the danger of upstream–downstream relations is not primarily “scorpion-like” behavior (damaging an opponent), but rather “ostrich-like” behavior (burying one's head in the sand, ignoring unilateral developments). Dialogue is shown to be a key determinant in rectifying this situation, as it is the basis for trust-building, exchange of information, and development of mutually acceptable management options. Other key factors to be considered are the balance of power between highland–lowland actors and the legal/institutional framework governing their interaction. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 115-120 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Resource based conflict framing among the Kereyu in the Upper and Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
This article presents aspects of a research project on so-called «violent resource based conflicts» in pastoral areas. It focuses on the question of how various actors of the main involved parties interpret and «frame» conflicts differently. It is a case study conducted among the Kereyu pastoral community in the upper and middle Awash valley of Ethiopia who relate with other neighbouring groups and share common resources through both violent and non-violent conflicts. Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 23-26 Download
Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Knobel, Darryn L.
Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, Vol. 83, Number 5, pp. 321-400 Download from: The World Health Organisation
Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in the Eastern Nile Basin to Environmental Factors
Abd El-Moghny, Mohamed
Master's Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt "A situation analysis with regard to the vulnerability of water resources systems in the Eastern Nile Basin was carried out. The focus was on using internationally recognized indicators and indices that can provide an insight about the situation in the region in a concise and illustrative fashion. A generic operational framework for assessing vulnerability of water systems was outlined and applied to the Eastern Nile Basin. Based on a careful survey, a list of 31 indicators used for vulnerability assessment were identified and categorized according to an outlined categorical structure designed to separate hydrological and physical indicators from other indicators of socio-economic or political nature. [...]" Download
The Role of NGOs in Preventing and Managing Conflicts Resulting from Water Resources Development in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland "This thesis deals with the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in preventing and managing conflicts arising from water development projects in Ethiopia. It seeks to find out development organization’s comprehension of a conflict, their perception of their role in a conflict setting and their relationship to other organizations. Besides a descriptive part, the thesis also examined reasons seeking to explain the success or failure of NGOs’ efforts in conflict prevention. [...]" Download Summary
Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa
Ayele, Wuhib Y.
"Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous le-sions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. Bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. All species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. In Africa, bovine TB primarily affects cattle; however, infection in other farm and domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats, is not uncommon. Wild ruminants and carnivores are also affected and are the natural reservoirs of the infectious agent in the wild. Man is also susceptible to the disease, the highest risk groups being individuals with concomitant HIV/AIDS infection. In Africa, human TB is widely known to be caused by M. tuberculosis; however, an unknown proportion of cases are due to M. bovis. This infection in humans is underreported as a result of the diagnostic limitations of many laboratories in distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. None of the national reports submitted to the OIE and WHO by African member states mention the importance of M. bovis in human TB cases. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and poorly heat-treated meat and close contact with infected animals represent the main sources of infection for humans. This review attempts to examine the impact of bovine TB on the health of animals and humans." The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2004, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 924-937(14) Freely available from: Ingentaconnect
Research for Sustainable Development: Foundations, Experiences, and Perspectives
Wiesmann, Urs
Achieving sustainable development requires knowledge-based and value-conscious social, political, and economic decisions and actions at multiple levels. Research aiming to support sustainable development must co-produce knowledge at the interfaces between disciplines, between science and society, between knowledge cultures in the global North, South, and East, and between global visions and local realities, while remaining rooted in solid disciplinary foundations. Research for Sustainable Development presents 29 articles in which interdisciplinary teams reflect on the foundations of sustainability-oriented research, on concepts, tools, and approaches to overcome the challenges of such research, and on specific issues of sustainable development. For the print version, please send your order to: (price: CHF 45.00 / EUR 30.00, excluding postage) Download Book (8 MB) Download Flyer (100 KB)
The Critical Issue of Land Ownership
Ayele, Gebre Mariam
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 11 Bern, NCCR North-South
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich, Switzerland
National and Indigenous Management of Environmental Conflicts in the Savannah Belt of Sudan
Ahmed, Mey Eltayeb
PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan For further information, please contact the author
The Transformation of Violent Conflicts in Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia.
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Conflict Management Over Water Rights in Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Baechler G, Spillmann KR, Suliman M. editors. 2002. Transformation of Resource Conflicts: Approach and Instruments. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 451-476. Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Sustainable land management – a new approach to soil and water conservation in Ethiopia
Mitiku, Haile
This book suggests following the broader approach of Sustainable Land Management (SLM), which aims at ecological soundness, economic viability and social acceptability, and thus places SWC in a more holistic framework that is closer to farmers’ reality. This, however, requires that soil and water conservation (SWC) experts focus less on searching for standard solutions valid once and for all, and more on engaging in a continuous process of developing and adapting technologies with farmers. The present book was written for future SWC and land management experts in Ethiopia. It is based on results of the country’s Soil Conservation Research Program (SCRP), and the experience of researchers, experts, extension workers and Ethiopian peasants. The book aims to encourage readers to take a more critical look at land problems and responses to them, to ask more critical questions, and not to take standard solutions for granted. Download
Transformation of Resource Conflicts and the Case of Woito River Valley in Southern Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam, pp. 91-108 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich
Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Afrika: globale Agenda und lokales Handeln
Hurni, Hans
In: Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Thomas Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich, pp. 123-136 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Challenges for Sustainable Rural Development in Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
Lecture at the Faculty of Technology of the Addis Abeba University Download
Stations of the soil conservation research programme (SCRP) in Ethiopia
Herweg, Karl
In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.
Im Südsudan ist der Zensus ein hochpolitisches Unterfangen
Santschi, Martina
Erstmals in der Geschichte des Sudans wird eine Volkszählung durchgeführt, die den gesamten Südsudan sowie grosse Teile des Nordens umfasst. Im Zensus spiegeln sich der Machtkampf zwischen Khartum und dem Süden sowie Rivalitäten innerhalb des Südsudans. NZZ 110, 14.5.2008. Download
The MDGs in Bolivia: Poverty Reduction in a Post-neoliberal Area
Rist, Stephan
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 43 Bern, NCCR North-South Download
Land Degradation and Sustainable Land Management in the Highlands of Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
The Ethiopian Highlands cover over 50% of the country and are home to more than 90% of Ethiopia's population of over 80 million people (estimate for 2010); 60% of the livestock and 90% of the area suited for agriculture are also located here. Although more than 90% of the Highlands was once forested, today a mere 20% of this area is covered by trees, and the percentage of forest cover is less than 4%. This is evidence of a high incidence of degradation of vegetation in the past, which has continued to the present. Land-use and land-cover changes have been particularly dynamic in the 20th century, during which climate change also began to have effects; wildlife in natural habitats have been restricted to those few areas that were preserved naturally due to rugged topography or natural aridity. Soil erosion has been severe throughout the Highlands, but mainly on agricultural land; the current severity and extent of soil degradation seriously threaten food security. [...] In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 187-207. Download
The Roads of Decentralisation: The History of Rural Road Construction in Ethiopia
Emmenegger, Rony
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 39 Bern, NCCR North-South Download
Governing violence in the pastoralist space:
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
Africa Focus 21(2):71-87. Download
Failed state or failed debate? Multiple Somali political orders within and beyond the nation-state
Hagmann, Tobias
Politorbis. Vierteljährliche Zeitschrift zur Aussenpolitik (42):20-26. Download
Ferne Länder, andere Stoffflüsse
[Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology], Eawag
German edition of Eawag News on material flows in foreign lands. An accounting method for the analysis of flows of ecologically significant materials and resources is increasingly being used by Eawag to assess acute environmental problems in developing and emerging countries. The German edition of Eawag News reports on projects carried out in Bangladesh, Eritrea, Congo/Rwanda, Cuba, Thailand and Vietnam. EAWAG News 62d December 2006 Download from: EAWAG
NGOs in Conflict Prevention: Experiences from the Water Sector in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
While development cooperation can cause or exacerbate conflicts, withholding aid is not the solution. The issue is how to provide aid in a manner that prevents conflict, so as to achieve sustainable peace. This Practical Note examines how NGOs have prevented and managed conflicts arising from water projects in Ethiopia. Development in Practice 2006, 16(2) Available from: Development in Practice
Africa’s development and its challenges in the health sector: medical, social and cultural dimensions
Cissé, Guéladio
In: Thomas Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich. Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Landscape Transformation and Opportunities for Sustainable Land Management along the Eastern Escarpment of Wello (EEW), Ethiopia
Bantider, Amare
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Briefing: Counting ‘New Sudan’
Santschi, Martina
Between 22 April and 6 May 2008, Sudan’s fifth population and housing census was conducted in both North and South Sudan. Because it will have a decisive impact on future power and wealth sharing in Sudan, the census has been highly contested, and its outcome is likely to be controversial. This briefing argues that the hotly contested census not only highlighted existing tensions between the North and the South on topics such as resources, power sharing, and identity but also intensified competition among Southern Sudanese political actors. African Affairsy 107:631-640 Order from: African Affairs
State and Politics in Ethiopia's Somali Region since 1991
Hagmann, Tobias
Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 2006, Vol. 6, pp. 25-49 Available from: tobiashagmann.net
Pastoral Conflict and Resource Management in Ethiopia's Somali Region
Hagmann, Tobias
PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Pressure-State-Response in Land Resource Changes, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia
Yitaferu, Birru
Lake Tana Basin (LTB) is the uppermost part of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. The 15,000 km2 headwater is a main water source of the Blue Nile and a place of ancient agriculture and human settlement. Understanding problems related to land resource changes requires detailed examination of the factors in a pressure-state response framework (see Birru Yitaferu 2007). Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern. Download
Land Degradation and Runoff Changes in the Highlands of Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
The Ethiopian Highlands constitute 50% of the country and were once forested to a large extent. Nowadays, merely 20% are covered by trees (3% by closed forest), evidencing a high extent of agricultural activities in the historic past and up to today. The consequences are land degradation, and there is increased direct runoff in the highlands and to the lowlands. Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern. Download
La Région Somali d’Éthiopie. Entre intégration, indépendance et irrédentisme
Hagmann, Tobias
With the introduction of « ethnic federalism » by Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, Somalis have finally been accorded autonomy in eastern Ethiopia. But fifteen years after the Derg, Ethiopian-Somali identity is still disputed and the question of self-determination is far from being resolved. The inhabitants of the Somali region are struggling with three options : integration into Ethiopia, independence based on territory and genealogy or irredentism toward the defunct Democratic Republic of Somalia. Politique Africaine 2005, No. 99, pp. 43-62 Available from: Politique Africaine
Egypt and the Nile Basin
Hefny, Magdy
The following paper examines the Nile question from an Egyptian perspective. The Nile is Egypts main source of water, and 96% of this water originates from outside of its territory. This explains why water is a key security issue for Egypt, and why, from Egypts point of view, cooperation with the upstream Nile countries is the only way forward. Egypts water policy focuses on demand management, environmental protection and international joint projects to increase the water supply (e.g. Jonglei canal). Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 42-50. Available from: SpringerLink
Double-Edged Hydropolitics on the Nile
Luzi, Samuel
This thesis focuses on domestic processes of water policy making in Egypt and Ethiopia in the context of transboundary conflict and cooperation in the Nile Basin. It presents results at two different levels. First, the water sectors of Egypt and Ethiopia are analyzed with regard to their capacity to jointly design and implement effective and sustainable strategy for transboundary river development. Second, the study produces general insights regarding the nature of transboundary river conflicts and the challenges of conflict mitigation. PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) Zurich, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD 2008)
NCCR North-South,
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 21
What Drives Land Cover Change in Eastern Escarpment of Wello, Ethiopia?
Bantider, Amare
Multiple factors, many operating concomitantly and as a chain of logical causation, were found responsible for non-linear land cover changes along the Eastern Escarpment of Wello (EEW). Unlike elsewhere, population in this region did not turn out to be an important factor in driving land use and land cover change (LULCC); however, it made its own contribution to these changes. Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD), National Centre of Competence in Research NCCR North-South, University of Bern. 02-04 July 2008, Bern. Download
Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships
Hurni, Hans
Humankind today is challenged by numerous threats brought about by the speed and scope of global change dynamics. A concerted and informed approach to solutions is needed to face the severity and magnitude of current development problems. Generating shared knowledge is a key to addressing global challenges. This requires developing the ability to cross multiple borders wherever radically different understandings of issues such as health and environmental sanitation, governance and conflict, livelihood options and globalisation, and natural resources and development exist. Global Change and Sustainable Development presents 36 peer-reviewed articles written by interdisciplinary teams of authors who reflected on results of development-oriented research conducted from 2001 to 2008. Scientific activities were – and continue to be – carried out in partnerships involving people and institutions in the global North, South and East, guided by principles of sustainability. The articles seek to inform solutions for mitigating, or adapting to, the negative impacts of global dynamics in the social, political, ecological, institutional and economic spheres. For the print version, please send your order to: nccr-north-south@cde.unibe.ch (price: CHF 45.00 / EUR 30.00, excluding postage) Download Book (30 MB) Download Flyer (94 KB)