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Dynamics of Irrigation Institutions
Menon, Vineetha
Economic and Political Weekly 2005, Vol. 26, February, pp. 893-904 Available from: Economic and Political Weekly
The Fairtrade Potential of the Rubber Supply Chain in Kerala
Mokhtar, Jamil
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources
Rist, Stephan
"The present paper discusses a conceptual, methodological and practical framework within which the limitations of the conventional notion of natural resource management (NRM) can be overcome. NRM is understood as the application of scientific ecological knowledge to resource management. By including a consideration of the normative imperatives that arise from scientific ecological knowledge and submitting them to public scrutiny, ‘sustainable management of natural resources’ can be recontextualised as ‘sustainable governance of natural resources’. This in turn makes it possible to place the politically neutralising discourse of ‘management’ in a space for wider societal debate, in which the different actors involved can deliberate and negotiate the norms, rules and power relations related to natural resource use and sustainable development. [...]" Journal of Rural Studies 2007, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp. 23-37 Available from: ScienceDirect
The Clean Development Mechanism
Lüthi, Christoph
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Master's thesis on the current Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and its effect on promotion of sustainable environmental sanitation improvements at decentralised level. The transaction costs and risks associated with the CDM have shown to favour large centralised projects. Though many decentralised projects contribute significantly to increasing sustainable development, they cannot compete with large centralised projects on emission reductions at lowest cost. The study assesses the viability of selected case studies and suggests approaches to enhance decentralised CDM projects. Download
"Should I buy a cow or a TV?"
Bichsel, Christine
International labour migration has become a strategy against poverty in many parts of the developing world. By remitting their earnings to the families they leave behind, migrant labourers have become a primary source of livelihoods for many of the world's poorest nations. The long-term consequences of this practice on local development are the subject of this study, based on reseach conducted in three rural communities in Mexico, India and Kyrgyzstan. NCCR North-South Dialogue 2005 Download
Transnationale soziale Netzwerke und Migration
Thieme, Susan
"Kann Migration zur Reduzierung von Armut beitragen? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das große Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich unter anderem auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus dem ruralen Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass der Beitrag von Migration zur Existenzsicherung weit über die Bedeutung von Geldüberweisungen hinausgeht." Geographische Rundschau 2006, Vol. 58, No. 10, pp. Order from: Geographische Rundschau
Social Networks and Migration
Thieme, Susan
Based on existing research about the importance of migration, questions need to be raised about how Nepalese migrants live in receiving countries, what individual or structural backgrounds enable migrants and their families to benefit from migration, and what prevents them from doing so. How do migrants manage their daily lives, how do they gain access to resources, and what are their reasons for doing so? The principal aim of the study is to enhance understanding of the process of migration and its contribution to the livelihoods of people from rural areas in Nepal. It also aims to help develop interventions that will maximise the benefits of migration. NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 15 Bern, NCCR North-South
Rethinking India’s Counter-insurgency Campaign in North-East
Barbora, Sanjay
"The optimism generated by proponents of India’s “Look East” policy and tentative peace talks between armed opposition groups and the state would suggest that there has been a radical change in the government of India’s north-east policy. However, militarisation and ethnic confrontation continue to define the parameters of public policy in India’s north-east. Ethnic violence is accentuated by the existence of parallel political and administrative structures that undermine the rule of law. This article argues that the change in India’s north-east is contingent upon the government’s motivation to encourage transparency in governance and administration and to consciously move away from its existing reliance on archaic military solutions." Economic and Political Weekly 2006, XLI(35), pp. 3805-3812 Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly
Exploring the meaning of money
Premchander, Smita
PhD Thesis, Durham University, United Kingdom For further information please contact the author
Lease farming in Kerala: Findings from micro level studies
Nair, K.N.
"[...] This paper examines some micro-level studies on tenancy in Kerala, more specifically, its prevalence across locations and crops, characteristics of lessors and lessees, the terms of lease, and the income derived from lease cultivation and in the light of the analysis, argues for institutionalised arrangements for the expansion of lease cultivation, rather than sterner measures to check it. [...]" CDS Working Paper no. 378. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Indian agricultural development in the context of economic reforms
Künzler, Marion
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland "This work examines the influence of reforms in the 1990s regarding the agricultural development in India. Many studies have analysed the impact of these reforms but most of them focused on foreign trade or the industry and service sector rather than on the agricultural sector. [...]" Download Summary
Livelihood Risks and Coping Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the various dimensions of livelihood risk as informed by a in-depth case study of an agrarian village namely, Cherumad in Kerala. The livelihood risk in Cherumad since the last quarter of the 1990’s has been unique and unprecedented in their nature and intensity. The effect of price risk and productivity risk of crops became an income risk to the farming community. For agricultural labour too it was an income risk with double effects of wage risk and employment risk. These risk have resulted in a general fall in the living standards of people." CDS Working Paper no. 394. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Agrarian Distress and Rural Livelihoods
Nair, K.N.
"This study examines the impact of agrarian distress on the different socio-economic groups, the strategies of livelihood adopted by households and the local institution in shaping these strategies. The study is based on the data collected from in-depth socio-economic enquiries conducted in Upputhara Panchayat in Idukki District. An important conclusion of the study is that the strategies of livelihood framed in response to a shock could vary across households depending on the extent of their asset ownership." CDS Working Paper no. 392. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
“It was hard to come to mutual understanding…” – The multidimensionality of social learning processes concerned with sustainable natural resource use in India, Africa and Latin America
Rist, Stephan
Sustainable natural resource use requires that multiple actors reassess their situation in a systemic perspective. This can be conceptualised as a social learning process between actors from rural communities and the experts from outside organisations. A specifically designed workshop provided the background for evaluating the potentials and constraints of intensified social learning processes. Case studies in rural communities in India, Bolivia, Peru and Mali showed that changes in the narratives of the participants of the workshop followed a similar temporal sequence relatively independently from their specific contexts. Social learning processes were found to be more likely to be successful if they 1) opened new space for communicative action, allowing for an intersubjective re-definition of the present situation, 2) contributed to rebalance the relationships between social capital and social, emotional and cognitive competencies within and between local and external actors. Journal of Systemic Practice and Action Research 19(3):219-237. Download from: SpringerLink
"We are as Flexible as Rubber!"
Strasser, Balz
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Indian natural rubber sector has been affected by trends towards trade liberalisation, a reduced role of the State, and organisational reforms. Rubber cultivators in Kerala - around 1 million holders cultivating an average 0.5 ha of rubber plantation - have been affected by these processes in different ways. It is hypothesised that growers - especially the ones located in agro-ecologically marginal rubber areas - are coping with these changes with diversified income-generating strategies. The book shows that the different types of holdings have specific management strategies and ways of dealing with risks. Furthermore, there is evidence that specific local institutions and organisations can hinder and/or support the income generation of the different types of holdings. Order from: Manohar Books
Agrarian Distress and Livelihood Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under agrarian distress in Pulpalli Panchayat of Kerala. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The negotiations of institutions by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society were analysed in detail." CDS Working Paper no. 396. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Die Bedeutung imaginativer Geographien im Kampf um "Gorkhaland"
Bishokarma, Miriam
Keywords: Strategic imaginative geographies, Imaginative geographies, ethno-symbolic resources, ethnoscape, regionalisation, ethno-regional movements, India, Darjeeling, West Bengal Download
Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India
Thieme, Susan
In the relatively rare instances when the spatialities of temporary migrant work, workers’ journeys, and labour-market negotiations have been the subject of scholarly attention, there has been little work that integrates time into the analysis. Building on a case study of low-paid and insecure migrant manual workers in the context of rapid economic growth in India, we examine both material and subjective dimensions of these workers’ spatiotemporal experiences. Rogaly B, Thieme S. 2012. Experiencing space-time: the stretched lifeworlds of migrant workers in India. Environment and Planning A 44:2086-2100. doi:10.1068/a44493
Features of Agrarian Change in a Maharashtra Village: A Study in Karkatta Village, Latur
Kumar, Awanish
Kumar A. 2012. Features of Agrarian Change in a Maharashtra Village: A Study in Karkatta Village, Latur [M.Phil. dissertation]. Mumbai, India: Tata Institute of Social Sciences. In the larger context of debates on agrarian change, this study looks at the nature of changes in agrarian relations in a village in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Download Conclusions
Globalisierung und Agrarproduktmärkte in Kerala
Véron, René
"Der mit Landwirtschaftsressourcen gut ausgestattete südindische Bundesstaat Kerala ist seit Jahrhunderten in den Weltmarkt eingebunden. Aber selbst in der heutigen Phase der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung weisen die Märkte für Keralas Agrarprodukte Merkmale auf, die nicht nur internationale Verhältnisse zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage widerspiegeln, sondern von zahlreichen sozialen und politischen Institutionen auf verschiedenen räumlichen Ebenen geprägt sind. Solche „real existierende globale Märkte“ werden im Beitrag am Beispiel von Cashew und Kautschuk besprochen." Geographische Rundschau 2004, No. 11, pp. 18-24 Order from: Goegraphische Rundschau
Patterns of consumption and poverty in Delhi slums
Agrawal, Naveen Kumar
Economic and Political Weekly 2003, 38(50), pp. 5294-5300 Available for purchase from: Economic and Political Weekly
Natural resources contested in autonomous councils: Assessing the causes of ethnic conflict in North-East India.
Barbora, Sanjay
Constitutional arrangements for peripheral areas in India reflect the national government’s instrumentalist attempts at decentralising bureaucratic and administrative control in far-flung (essentially hill) areas. Karbi Anglong is one of the two hill districts in Assam where there are special constitutional provisions for indigenous ethnic groups to elect and run their own councils. The constitutional provisions allow for nominal control over forest and land by allocating certain areas of the territory to the Autonomous Council, which then re-allocates these areas to its political constituencies. This article explores the reasons why, despite the constitutional efforts at decentralisation of powers to Autonomous Councils, violence between different ethnic groups and the state continues to define the civic and political discourse in Anglong district. In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Access to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 191-215. Download
State, politics and civil society: A note on the experience of Kerala.
Ramakumar, R.
This paper discusses the historical experience with civil society and decentralisation in the State of Kerala, India. The paper tries to address three separate, but related, questions: firstly, what conclusions can we draw from the literature on the conditions for the success of civil society organisations in social transformation? Secondly, what are the lessons that the history of Kerala provides on the potential and role of social movements in the development process? Thirdly, how has the interface between civil society organisations and democratically elected institutions changed with the increased decentralisation of power to local people in Kerala? In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Access to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 275-310. Download
Land, Class, Ethnicity: Permutations of Environmental Conflicts in Two Districts of Assam
Barbora, Sanjay
PhD Thesis, North Eastern Hill University, India For further information please contact the author
Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts
Fleischli, Susanne
"The present study attempts to determine the significance of gender in environmental conflicts and to trace how considerations of gender may contribute to the management of environmental conflicts. These issues are examined by applying gender analysis to the specific case of the Cauvery River dispute in South India. The results show that gender does determine the way people are affected by an environmental conflict, and the way they are involved in the conflict management process. Consideration of gender may contribute to improved management of environmental conflicts by promoting the involvement of all stakeholders, including women, who are often marginalized in conflict management." "Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts: A Gender Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute in South India" in: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 189-205. Download
Economic growth and poverty reduction in India
Schmid, Juan Pedro
PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
“We are as flexible as rubber!”
Strasser, Balz
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland In the face of economic liberalisation, a reduced role of the state, and the changing institutional setting affecting less developed countries, it has become important to understand the impacts of these processes on the livelihoods of rural households. Empirical studies show that smallholders are facing more and more difficulties in dealing with declining terms of trade and the fluctuating prices of agricultural commodities, which play an important role in the income of smallholder producers in rural areas. There is a hypothesis that, since the beginning of these processes, the opening-up of rural areas to the “global world” has induced a shift from solely agricultural and farm income towards a more diverse income portfolio. A second hypothesis is that the local institutional setting plays a key role in supporting or hindering the diversified livelihood strategies of smallholders. This study takes these as its research hypotheses and seeks to validate them through a crop- and locality-specific case study. Download Abstract
Social Networks and Migration
Thieme, Susan
Münster, LIT-Verlag
Distress Debt and Suicides among Agrarian Households
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the factors and process underlying agrarian distress in Kerala by undertaking the case studies of three villages situated in Wayanad and Idukki districts namely, Cherumad, Kappikkunnu and Upputhara. The impact of distress on household livelihoods and indebtedness and how they cope up with the situation are examined with entire village and intra village analysis of data. The process of agrarian distress which resulted in suicides were analysed through a few in-depth studies." CDS Working Paper no. 397. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies >>Download
The Status of Public Agricultural Extension Services in Maharashtra
Bheemeshwar, Reddy
Master's thesis at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of public agricultural extension services in terms of it access, the investment incurred on it and to suggest certain measures for more accessible and effective agricultural extension service to support farmers of Maharashtra. Download
India and the Millennium Development Goals: Progress and Challenges
Ramakumar, R.
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 38 Bern, NCCR North-South Download
Nationalizing Space: Cosmetic Federalism and the Politics of Development in Northeast India
Baruah, Sanjib
"Until recently Arunachal Pradesh on India's Northeast frontier was relatively insulated from the processes associated with development. State institutions were barely present during the colonial era. In 1962, however, India and China fought a border war in this area: this war, along with signs of unrest among indigenous peoples in the neighbourhood, exposed India's vulnerabilities in the region. Since then, nationalizing this frontier space by extending the institutions of the state all the way into the international border region has become the thrust of Indian policy. The region's governmental infrastructure was fundamentally redesigned to put in place what can only be described as a cosmetic federal regional order with a number of small states dependent on the central government's largess and subject to monitoring by India's Home Ministry. The new regional order has put Arunachal firmly on a developmentalist track, which has enabled India to meet its national security goals, but at a significant cost to the region." Development and Change 2003, 34(5), p. 915 Available from: Blackwell Synergy
The declining rice-fish farming
Nair, K.N.
"In the coastal regionns of India, a complex and ecologically responsive farming system has evolved over centuries. In this system, rice an fish cultivation alternates trough a mechanism of water control. This paper discusses the evolution of the socio-political and institutional arrangements in such and integrated farming system (Know as kaipad cultivation) in Ezhome Panchayat in Kerala that emerged out of collective action, and documents how they could not be sustained. The decline of kaipad cultivation has been adversely affecting the livehoods of a segment of agricultural labour households, especially the women and the elderly. They are several constraints to the revival of this cultivation. Nevertheless, reviving this is vital for ecorestoration and to ensure justice to the disadvantaged people." Sociological Bulletin 2004 , Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 178-206 Available from: Article@INIST
Social networks and migration: Women's livelihoods between Far West Nepal and Delhi
Thieme, Susan
Although migration from Nepal has increasingly been the subject of research since the 1990s, there are very few publications about gender and migration in Nepal. We want to contribute to fill this research gap by presenting a case study of women’s livelihoods in the context of labour migration, both as migrants themselves and as women who remain in the villages. The migrants originate from Bajura district of the Far Western Development Region, where migration to India has been a common occurrence for several generations and the economy can be described as “agri-migratory” (Bruslé 2008: 241). The analysis sheds light on women’s individual aspirations as well as their position within their families and communities. It also explores how kinship networks and social capital shape women’s lives and whether migration facilitates social change. In: European Bulletin of Himalayan Research 35-36: 107-121. Download
Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Incidence of Agricultural Labourers: A Study in Maharashtra State, India
Kumar, Awanish
The present thesis is an attempt to analyse temporal and spatial changes in the incidence of agricultural wage labour in the state of Maharashtra. It aims, primarily, at analyzing changes in the size of the labour force in agriculture and the distribution of these changes across castes and gender. Conclusions of Master Thesis at Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Download